Mahan, Rayen and Bam


Shahzadeh Garden is one of the most beautiful historical gardens in Iran. This garden is located about 2 kilometers away from Mahan City and in the outskirts of Tigran Mountains and is related to Qajar period. The garden was established in 1276 solar hijri year.

This garden is one of the 9 Iranian gardens and information regarding this garden is translated into 35 languages by UNESCO and it exists in UNESCO tourist map. Shahzadeh Mahan Garden with lofty trees and the streamlet whose pleasant sound is heard from around the corner is like a precious diamond on desert chest.

This garden is one of the Iranian bed gardens and is located on a rectangular land with an area of 5.5 hectar and has a very beautiful entrance structure. Garden buildings include the main summerhouse which is the permanent and/or seasonal settlement of the owner at the end of the garden. House façade at the entrance of the garden is like a linear structure at the beginning of the garden and the building has two floors. The upper floor has rooms for living and catering. Apart from the entrance structure, this garden includes a kingly mansion and bathroom. The kingly mansion is turned into a restaurant at the moment and is run by a private sector.
Various fruit trees can be seen in this garden and the ponds and fountains have made an elegant waterfront.



Rayen castle, or Arg-e Rayen is an adobe castle in Rayen city in Kerman, you can visit the medieval mud brick city of Rayen is similar to the Arg e Bam. Rayen displays all the architectural elements of a deserted citadel. It appears extremely well preserved, considering the numerous natural disasters that have been destroying similar structures nearby, and it is one of the most interesting historical sites in Iran.The fortress at Rayen is similar in outlook and construction to the fortress at Bam, while been younger in age. It is thought to be a Sassanian era (224 CE – 649 CE) fortress. Like Bam, Rayen fortress was in use until about 150 years ago.

Rayen Citadelis a historical site situated in the south-west of Rayen city and is considered the biggest earthen structure of Kerman province after Bam citadel  which was destroyed in an earthquake on 2003. The monument dates back to the Sassanid era and covers a 20,000-square-meter area, remaining a symbol of the residential fortresses during the ancient times. Just like other fortresses, it consists of the public quarter and the aristocratic zone. The essential sectors such as Zoor khaneh (gymnasium for a traditional Persian sport), mosque, and stable can be seen in the citadel. Adobe is the main material used in its construction.

Local residents believe that Rayen forces won in wars due to the quality of their handmade weaponry produced by locals. It is believed that Rayen Citadel dates back to the Sassanid era, although what is remained today belongs to the Islamic period constructions, mainly Safavid era and afterwards.



Arg-e Bam or Bam Citadel is the largest adobe building in the world and located in Bam, Kerman province, Iran. This ancient citadel has been listed by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage Site as “Bam and its Cultural Landscape”.

Iran (IMNA) – Bam is a city situated in a desert environment and its origin traced back to the Achaemenid period. Being on the way of silk road and other important trade routes in the 7th to 11th century and also recognized as the hub of silk and cotton garments production were some factors that involved in the heyday of this remarkable city in that period.

Largest Adobe Building in the World:

Bam Citadel as the largest adobe building in the world makes this city mostly well-known all over the world. In addition, there have been 67 towers in this ancient city. Bam Citadel was built in vernacular using mud layer and was known as a fortified medieval town. This historical site covers an area of nearly 200.000 square meters and walls as high as 6 to 7 meters.

Three Different Types of House:

There are different houses in the citadel, all of them were made of baked clay bricks.

. Small houses with 2 or 3 rooms for people who were not rich.

. Large houses with 3 or 4 rooms and some of them with Ivan as well, for middle class society families.

. Just a few number of houses equipped with more rooms and a big yard and also a barn for animals. These luxurious houses are located in different parts for different seasons.

Sustainable Architecture of Bam Citadel:

According to magnificent architecture of citadel, winds protruding structures used to catch the wind and steer it into the building. Moreover, sometimes water reservoirs inside the building used to cool it and remove dust. Accordingly, sustainable architecture of Bam Citadel was a significant factor in utilizing some renewable energies such as wind power in the 7th century to such an extent that architecture of the citadel was a major reason to utilize wind power as an air conditioner and lead it to different directions into the building.

2003 Bam Terrible Earthquake:

On 26 December, 2003, Bam was struck by a deadly earthquake. In such a disaster more than 80 percent of Bam Citadel was destroyed but many countries such as Japan, Italy and France participated to reconstruct Bam Citadel as a World Heritage. By sending a team of experts, various equipment, million dollars and a three-dimensional plan of Bam, they helped to increase the accuracy in renovation process. Also, the World Bank contributed in the process by allocating a large sum of money for Bam citadel reconstruction. Following the earthquake, bam Citadel was on the list of World Heritage in Danger, but according to UNESCO, due to renovation proceedings, in recent years it was removed from the list of in danger monuments.